Android smartphones in developing markets sold with pre-installed malware
Upstream discovers infected devices on sale across 8 developing markets
London, July 6th, 2018 – Upstream, a leader of the mobile internet revolution in high growth markets, has today revealed that new low-end Android smartphone devices being sold to consumers in developing markets, many of whom are coming online for the first time, contain pre-installed malware. This malware, designed to commit digital ad fraud, collects users’ personal information, depletes their mobile data allowance and triggers fraudulent charges to their pre-paid credit, without their knowledge or consent.
Guy Krief, CEO of Upstream, explains the findings: “Digital ad fraud is a global phenomenon, responsible for a loss of more than 30 percent of global digital investment. It is mostly about fake impressions and clicks, generated by machines. Our Secure-D platform has uncovered that a number of low-end Android smartphones for sale in developing markets, such as Brazil, Egypt, Myanmar and South Africa, are sold with a digital ad fraud malware pre-installed, before the user has even turned the phone on for the first time.”
Smartphone penetration in developing markets is growing rapidly, forecast to reach 62 percent by 2020, and, as a result, broadband connections are also increasing, expected to rise to 88 percent in Brazil by 2020, according to the GSMA Mobile Economy 2017 report. That said, the cost of data in emerging markets remains expensive, relative to local income levels, compared to what holds in developed markets (indicatively, in Brazil, 1GB of data would take the average person 6 hours of work to pay for). Moreover, in emerging markets, where 80 percent of people are unbanked, and most are pre-paid mobile subscribers, carrier billing -a payment method allowing users to purchase digital services by charging payments to their airtime balance- is often the only way they can pay for digital services. The combination of these conditions creates an explosive context for the effects pre-installed smartphone malware has on consumers in emerging markets.
Guy Krief, added: “This malware is targeting consumers who are often getting online for the first time via their mobile device and have no other way to access the internet. In emerging markets, where online clicks can trigger a purchase and charges to airtime credit, such online advertising fraud directly impacts the end consumer. These users are immediately falling victim to fraudulent activity, which is depleting their mobile data allowance and taking money from their air time credit. In one month, we observed over 1.3 million fraudulent attempts to purchase a single digital premium service in Brazil alone, the first of the markets where we identified this issue in. A similar pattern was identified by our Secure-D platform in other emerging markets, like Myanmar, Egypt and South Africa.”
Upstream’s carrier-grade platform Secure-D combines machine learning algorithms with payment processing workflows to protect mobile operators and their subscribers against online transaction fraud and data depletion. The Secure-D platform, deployed in 12 markets with 18 mobile operators, processes over 3.3 million transaction requests per day, providing end-to-end protection to safeguard mobile operators and their subscribers, in today’s mobile data era.
Guy Krief, commented: “Digital ad-fraud, if left unchecked, has the potential to hold back the mobile internet revolution in developing markets by eroding customer trust in the entire digital ecosystem. From a business perspective, and morally, protecting the next three billion consumers who are coming online for the first time needs to be a top priority for organisations working in high-growth markets.”
Upstream has worked with The Wall Street Journal to bring this story to light. You can read their write up here.
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